| B. Rosie Lerner
Look for Early Fall Color
Just as sure as you try to predict the weather, it is likely to change.
But going out on a limb, I predict that we will have an early fall regarding
color display this year. Not a very risky prediction, considering that
many plants already are starting to display their fall colors! And to
go even farther out on that limb, I'll predict that the colors won't be
as brilliant as perhaps they were in some other years.
So why would the colors be early and a bit duller than usual? Certainly,
some of the reason why plants display fall colors has to do with the genetic
makeup of the plant. That doesn't change from year to year. But the timing
and intensity of fall colors do vary, depending on factors such as availability
of soil moisture and plant nutrients, as well as environmental signals
such as temperature, sunlight, and length of day. The droughty conditions
experienced over much of the summer are likely to have decreased the amount
of fall color pigment.
Growing conditions throughout the season affect fall color as does current
weather. Colors such as orange and yellow, which we see in the fall, are
actually present in the leaf all summer. However, those colors are masked
by the presence of chlorophyll, the substance responsible for green color
in plants during the summer. Chlorophyll uses sunlight and carbon dioxide
from the air to produce carbohydrates (sugars and starch), which the tree
uses for food. Trees continually replenish their supply of chlorophyll,
which is used up in making food during the growing season.
As the days grow shorter and temperatures cooler, the trees use chlorophyll
faster than they can replace it. The green color fades as the level of
chlorophyll decreases, allowing the other colored pigments to show through.
Plants that are under stress--from conditions like prolonged dry spells--often
will display early fall color because they are unable to produce as much
Yellow, brown and orange colors, common to such trees as birch, some
maples, hickory and aspen, come from pigments called carotenoids, the
same pigments that are responsible for the color of carrots, corn and
Red and purple colors common to oaks, sweet gum, dogwoods and some maples
are produced by another type of pigment called anthocyanin, the pigment
responsible for the color of cherries, grapes, apples and blueberries.
Unlike chlorophyll and carotenoids, anthocyanins are not always present
in the leaf but are produced in late summer when environmental signals
occur. Anthocyanins also combine with carotenoids to produce the fiery
red, orange, and bronze colors found in sumac, oaks, and dogwoods.
Red colors tend to be most intense when days are warm and sunny, but
nights are cool--below 45 F. The color intensifies because more sugars
are produced during warm, sunny days; cool night temperatures cause the
sugars to remain in the leaves. Pigments are formed from these sugars,
so the more sugar in the leaf, the more pigment, and, thus, more intense
colors. Warm, rainy fall weather decreases the amount of sugar and pigment
production. Warm nights cause what sugars that are made to move out of
the leaves, so that leaf colors are muted.
Leaf color also can vary from tree to tree and even from one side of
a tree to another. Leaves that are more exposed to the sun tend to show
more red coloration while those in the shade turn yellow. Stress such
as drought, poor fertility, disease or insects may cause fall color to
come on earlier, but usually results in less intense coloration, too.